Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University
Pusa, Samastipur – 848 125, Bihar, India


Butterfly Garden

Butterfly Garden

"Butterfly Garden: An Ambassador of a Healthy Ecosystem"

Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University (RPCAU) has established a unique Butterfly Garden as a component of its Biodiversity Park to promote the conservation of local flora and fauna in Pusa, Bihar. The Garden at RPCAU is constructed amidst a mixed forest of Cadamba (Neolamarckia cadamba), Kassod Tree (Senna siamea), Earpod Acacia (Acacia auriculiformis), and Jungle Jalebi (Pithecellobium dulce) trees, creating a suitable habitat for butterflies.

This Garden is also an “In-field laboratory” studying the relationships between butterfly species and their habitats. This park serves as a sanctuary for native butterfly species, where they play crucial roles as pollinators and indicators of ecological health. The extensive park has been meticulously designed to mimic the refined ecological niches required during the butterflies’ life cycles. The diverse collection of local plant species provides essential resources such as nectar, host plants for larvae, and suitable microclimates for pupation and overwintering.

The Butterfly Garden is divided into three main areas:-

1. Nectar and Puddling Area: This area serves as an important foraging habitat for adult butterflies. A constructed fountain and surrounding gravel puddling areas provide critical sources of water and mineral supply. Nectar plants like Hemalia spp., Lantana spp., Cuphia sp., Bougainvillea spp., and others have been strategically planted to ensure continuous availability of blooms and nectar throughout the seasons.

Nectar and Puddling Area

2. Larval Host Plant Zone: A diversity of larval host plants, including Polyalthia longifolia, Mimosa pudica, Calotropis sp., and others support the complete life cycles of resident butterfly species. The butterfly-attracting plants such as Crotalaria and Heliotropium have been planted to supply alkaloids from the sap emerging from withering stems and terminal branches. These host plants offer a range of microhabitats and nutrients tailored to the specific needs of different butterfly groups.

Larval Host Zone

3. Butterfly conservatories: This facility allows for the ex-situ breeding and propagation of butterfly species. A netted shade house (for summers) and a polyhouse (for winters) mimics optimum microclimatic conditions for different life stages, within these indoor areas, entomologists monitor and care for butterfly populations, ensuring their development and reproductive success.

Butterfly Conservatories

Ecological Initiatives

Butterflies hold ecological, aesthetic, educational, scientific, economic, and environmental importance. They are natural heritage, major plant pollinators, and indicators of a healthy ecosystem. Their beauty and qualities are celebrated in various cultural contexts, and their conservation contributes to environmental protection and biodiversity.

The Butterfly Garden at RPCAU serves as a model environmental awareness and conservation area in the state of Bihar, creating awareness among students and farmers about butterflies, their behavior, conservation measures, their role as pollinators, and their environmental potential in crop production. Extensive scientific research on butterfly behavior has commenced in the Butterfly Garden. Butterflies help increase crop production through pollination, and their beauty greatly attracts humans. This Garden at RPCAU is a successful effort to conserve biodiversity.

Pusa Butterflies

Blue Pansy

Junonia orithya

Grey Pansy

Junonia atlites

Common four rings

Ypthima huebneri

Common Leopard

Phalanta phalantha

Peacock Pansy

Junonia almana

Lemon Pansy

Junonia lemonias

Painted Lady

Vanessa cardui

Chocolate Pansy

Junonia iphita

Common Castor

Ariadne merione

Rounded Pierrot

Tarucus extricatus

Plain Tiger

Danaus chrysippus

Common Crow

Euploea core

Common Sailer

Neptis hylas

Gaika blue

Zizula hylax

Common Silverline

Cigaritis vulcanus

Common Jay

Graphium doson

Great Eggfly

Hypolimnas bolina

Bright Babul Blue

Azanus ubaldus


Leptosia nina

Common Gull

Cepora nerissa

Eastern Bath White

Pontia edusa

Common Wanderer

Pareronia valeria

Common Emigrant

Catopsilia Pomona

Common Jezebel

Delias eucharis

Common Grass Yellow

Eurema hecabe

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